|During September 2013, Parliament passed the National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013. The NFSA seeks to make the right to food a legal entitlement by providing subsidised food grains to nearly two-thirds of the population. The Act relies on the existing Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) mechanism to deliver these entitlements. This note describes the functioning of the existing TPDS mechanism and the role played by the centre and states. It also explores challenges in the effective implementation of TPDS and alternatives to reform the existing machinery.